by Julian Lawrence and Neil Archer
(The Conversation) — Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola and Ken Loach have all recently expressed scorn at the growing dominance of superhero movies in the commercial cinema, with Scorsese saying that the Marvel film universe is “not cinema.”
We asked two academics: an expert in cinema and an expert in comics to debate the question: Julian Lawrence, senior lecturer in comics and graphic novels, Teesside University and Neil Archer, senior lecturer in film studies, Keele University.
Marvel movies aren’t cinema. So what are they? Martin Scorsese recently labeled them “theme parks” but I suggest they function primarily as commercials. I agree with British filmmaker Ken Loach’s comment that Marvel movies are “a commodity which will make a profit for a big corporation – they’re a cynical exercise”.
Fellow film great Francis Ford Coppola agrees with them both – except he doesn’t think they went far enough, labeling superhero films “despicable”.
They are not the first to take aim at superhero movies. In 2014, director/screenwriter Alejandro G. Iñárritu (Birdman) condemned superhero blockbusters saying “… they purport to be profound, based on some Greek mythological kind of thing. And they are honestly very right-wing … Philosophically, I just don’t like them.”
He could be on to something about the right-wing propaganda aspect. Superhero movies tend to set up situations where the world is in grave danger – and sell superheroes as the solution. The message here is that might makes right and that the end always justifies the means: a classic fascist trope. You can see why someone like Loach might not like this narrative trend. His stark new film, Sorry We Missed You, makes it clear there are no superheroes to save us, just ordinary people in real situations living lives of quiet desperation.
As bread and circus commodities, Marvel movies also function as self-advertisements – not just for the countless prequels and sequels, but also for merchandising, which is the real cash cow. Licensing revenue for toys, games, clothing, even breakfast cereal far eclipses box office receipts.
Selling a commodity as art has become so normalized that we consumers gladly invest our money and time to collectively participate. I invested a great deal of time watching the TV series Mad Men, only to discover in the final episode that it was a seven-year-long Coke commercial. Since then, I’ve refused to spend any more of my life on episodic television and had to laugh when I read abut the inadvertent Starbucks product placement in the final series of Game of Thrones.
The ninth and seventh arts
Franco-Belgian scholars classify cinema as the “seventh art”, with comics being the ninth. But if we are to distinguish cinema from a murky mash-up of all media, then some protocols are needed. First, how about a moratorium on custom-made scenes that pander to international audiences? Iron Man 3 was cut for the Chinese market by upping the screen time for a minor character and adding foreign product placement that are not included in the original version. This is not done for art’s sake, but to generate increased revenue.
The backlash to Loach, Scorsese and Coppola is not surprising, since almost everyone in Hollywood (and beyond) is in on this game. For instance, Marvel movies accounted for 48.2% of Samuel L. Jackson’s entire career box office take, and a whopping 82.6% of Robert Downey Jr’s. Over in the DC Extended Universe in 2017, feminist icon Wonder Woman earned millions for her investors, which included oil tycoons Charles G. Koch, David H. Koch and Donald Trump’s treasury secretary, Steve Mnuchin.
It isn’t the genre that is the problem, it’s that mainstream superhero movies are created primarily to sell more mainstream superhero movies. The claim that Disney/Marvel innovated “narratives that are dispersed across its extended network of movies” is more evidence for their being capitalist commodities rather than cinema. Dispersing narratives across a network is a marketing ploy used by Marvel and DC for decades (known as crossovers) to boost sales of failing titles– readers are lured into buying issues of comics they don’t normally follow in order to continue reading a storyline or get closure. The films are essentially doing the same thing.
The best superhero film I’ve seen all year is Woman at War by Icelandic director Benedikt Erlingsson. It tells the story of one woman’s battle against planetary annihilation. Go see it if you get the chance.
For the record, I’m ambivalent about much of Marvel’s Cinematic Universe (MCU) – yet I was still struck by what Scorsese had to say about Marvel movies being more theme park than cinema.
That Scorsese should take this line, in some respects, is apt. Peter Biskind’s 1998 book, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls, evokes Scorsese as one of the great filmmakers of the “New Hollywood”, the decade or so from 1968 when it seemed that film-literate, adventurous directors and writers would re-imagine Hollywood.
The end of this period, in Biskind’s view, was down to the infantilism of films such as Jaws and Star Wars. These were films which were often viewed more as amusement-park rides than cinematic art – what Robin Wood critically dismissed as the childish, commercially-driven “Spielberg-Lucas syndrome” dominating mainstream film.
But if you want to look at the economical, expressive storytelling possibilities of film, just watch Spielberg’s Jaws, or even better, Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Don’t take my word for it – Scorsese, ironically, said so himself in a 2018 interview with Empire magazine, describing Spielberg as “a pioneer of visual storytelling … reinventing our art form with each new picture”.
Since he so strongly supports Spielberg, sometimes associated with the demise of grown-up cinema, it’s surprising that Scorsese should come out against the most current examples of popular film.
So what’s the problem with Marvel? As I explored in a recent book, the MCU’s most significant contribution to modern cinema – like it or not – has been to rethink the idea of the “standalone feature”, favouring narratives that are dispersed across an extended network of movies. From one perspective, the superhero franchises have simply expanded “classical” narrative form across a series of films.
Has this been at the expense, in Scorsese’s terms, of the “emotional, psychological experience” and the emphasis on “human beings” that is his preferred view of cinema? Well, Hulk is not Hamlet – and nor is Iron Man, despite the absurdly regal send off that character gets at the end of Avengers: Endgame.
But for all its self-congratulation, Endgame still offers much of the experience Scorsese demands – and which he might recognise. There are meditations on loss, on family, as well as debates on responsibility and moral choice, reflections on time and the impact of life decisions. And while we’re at it, were there many more films made in 2018 as refreshing, and politically engaging, as Black Panther.
But isn’t Loach right about Marvel being a corporate enterprise, designed to take our money? Of course he is – these are Hollywood movies after all (I believe Scorsese makes these too). Do we then disqualify every major studio production in history as an advert for itself?
But the bigger issue here is that, because they are linked to broader practices of commercialisation, the films themselves are – mistakenly – deemed guilty by association. The political critique of the films also reduces the sizeable audience to an undifferentiated, uncritical mass. Loach, like most critics of the films – who also admit to not watching them – doesn’t seem to credit Marvel’s viewers with any discernment or intelligence. But marketing and merchandising – as plenty of Disney flops have shown – can’t alone guarantee audience devotion.
Indeed, as media scholar Derek Johnson reminded us, within “corporate” Hollywood, filmmaking and merchandising divisions are often separate – even in conflict with each other. The skill of Marvel’s filmmakers, in fact, has been both to create and sustain an audience that wants to follow its characters over ten years and more. This is an achievement in narrative – not in flogging toys or pillowcases.
To be clear: I get why people don’t like Marvel. But why can’t filmmaking like theirs, and like Loach’s, coexist? As Tom Shone wittily asks in his book Blockbuster, the demonizing of modern movies tends to be all one-way traffic. Film connoisseurs tear into Star Wars for failing to be The Godfather, but nobody rips up Coppola’s family saga for missing a few space battles. Why need cinema be just one thing? Why not both? Isn’t cinema, in the end, something for everyone?
The elephant in this particular room, I suspect, is neither art, nor commercialism. And probably not “right-wing neoliberal propaganda” either. It’s exhibition. For the likes of Scorsese, the popularity and distribution muscle behind such films make it harder both to make and screen non-franchise or lower-budget movies. And he has a point.
But while there is clearly an imbalance problem within the contemporary cinema landscape, that doesn’t mean the films themselves are “not cinema”. Maybe they are just the cinema you’d rather not see.
The Conversation publishes knowledge-based journalism that is responsible, ethical and supported by evidence from academics and researchers in order to inform public debate with facts, clarity and insight into society’s biggest problems.
‘Clueless’ Pop-Up Coming to WeHo to Celebrate Film’s 25th Anniversary
WEST HOLLYWOOD, Calif. (KABC) — “As if” we needed another reason to stroll down memory lane! A new pop-up restaurant for the ’90s classic film “Clueless” is opening on Santa Monica Boulevard and it’s totally buggin’.
The pop-up, which is appropriately called “As If,” coincides with the film’s 25th anniversary and launches on March 31.
The restaurant will feature “Cher-able” drinks and snacks inspired by the film, along with set recreations and photos of the film’s most memorable scenes.
Tickets for the pop-up go on sale Friday, March 6 at 10 a.m. for $35 each and include 90 minutes in the restaurant, an entree and a side. As If runs from March 31 – May 8, Tuesdays – Sundays at 7100 Santa Monica […]
WeHo HRSS Presents ‘Tsirk (Circus)’ Film Screening & Panel – Feb 28
WEST HOLLYWOOD — The City of West Hollywood’s Human Rights Speakers Series will host a free panel discussion and screening of the feature film Tsirk (Circus) on February 28 at West Hollywood’s Council Chambers.
This Soviet musical comedy, directed by Grigori Aleksandrov and Isidor Simko, tells the story of Marion, an American circus artist, played by Lyubov Orlova, who flees to Russia after being persecuted because of her mixed-race child who is played by James Lloydovich Patterson.
Although billed as a lighthearted circus romance, this complex film explores themes of miscegenation, racism in America, and the rise of global white supremacy in the 1930s.
Opening remarks will take place at 7 p.m. followed by the film screening, and panel discussion.
The panel discussion will feature: Sasha Razor, Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Languages & Cultures at UCLA, Sarah Valentine, Scholar/Author, When I Was White, Rob Adler Peckerar, Executive Director, Yiddishkayt, and will be moderated by Boris Dralyuk, Executive Editor of the Los Angeles Review of Books.
The event is free, but seating is limited, but RSVP is requested. Validated parking will be available at the adjacent five-story West Hollywood Park parking structure, limited to availability.
The City of West Hollywood’s Human Rights Speakers Series brings together diverse communities to learn about and discuss global, national, and local human rights issues in a supportive environment. The series reflects the City’s commitment to human rights and core value of Respect and Support for People.
Friday, February 28, 2020 at the City of West Hollywood’s Council Chambers/Public Meeting Room, located at 625 N. San Vicente Boulevard.
For additional information about the Human Rights Speakers Series, please visit www.weho.org/hrss. For more information, please contact City of West Hollywood Arts Technician Joy Tribble at (323) 848-6360 or at firstname.lastname@example.org. For people who are Deaf or hard of hearing, please call TTY (323) 848-6496.
Lily Tomlin to Receive Hand & Footprint Ceremony at TCL Chinese Theatre in April
HOLLYWOOD — Iconic actress and comedian Lily Tomlin will be honored with a hand and footprint ceremony on Friday, April 17 at the world-famous TCL Chinese Theatre in Hollywood during the eleventh annual TCM Classic Film Festival.
Tomlin, a Tony, Grammy, eight time Emmy and two time Peabody Award winner, has had a remarkable career starting in the 1960s starring in cinematic classics, television staples and on stage.
“Lily Tomlin’s talent has endured for fifty years because she knows who she is. She’s managed to play broadly drawn roles alongside more nuanced characters without a hint of falseness,” said Ben Mankiewicz, TCM primetime anchor and official host of the TCM Classic Film Festival.
“Not long ago, Tomlin told The New York Times, ‘I wanted people to see the characters as human beings. And see themselves in them, too.’ The humanity she finds in the women she plays has enabled her to transition, seemingly with ease, from groundbreaking work on Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In to four Emmy nominations for Grace and Frankie, where she co-stars alongside another seminal artist, Jane Fonda.
There’s a consistent richness to her work, in comedy and drama, as well as on stage in her innovative one-woman show, The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe, and on the big screen.
Whether your favorite Lily Tomlin performance is The Late Show, or 9 to 5, or Nashville…wait, I’m not done. Or All of Me, Flirting with Disaster, I Heart Huckabees, or A Prairie Home Companion, you know all of those pictures were made more memorable because Lily Tomlin was among the cast. It’s hard to imagine a more deserving artist to have her hand and footprints cemented outside Hollywood’s signature classic movie house.”
This marks the tenth consecutive year TCM has featured a hand and footprint ceremony at the legendary TCL Chinese Theatre IMAX. In 2011, Peter O’Toole was the honoree, followed by Kim Novak in 2012, Jane Fonda in 2013, Jerry Lewis in 2014, Christopher Plummer in 2015, Francis Ford Coppola in 2016, Carl and Rob Reiner in 2017, Cicely Tyson in 2018, and Billy Crystal in 2019.
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This Just In…
- County Hospitals Receive 300 iPads for Patients to See Family
- Processions to Cedars Will Salute Healthcare Workers on National Nurses Day
- WeHo Webinar: Loneliness, Isolation, Depression, and Anxiety During Pandemic
- Texas & California Wet Markets Show Full Extent of Vile Conditions
- White House Gift Shop Selling Coronavirus Commemorative Coins
- Joe Exotic Prison Has 2nd Highest ‘Rona Rate
- Beverly Hills Votes To Resume Plastic Surgery Despite Coronavirus Pandemic